This does not include the genuinely girlhood- oriented boy (see p. 144 and p. 146) who is passing through the teens bound for adult transgender deviance.
In some cases symptoms merge with those of transsexualism (q.v.) and the delineation between the two appears to be less clear-cut than some observers will have it. The milder case of transvestism does not come easily to medical or any other professional attention, and it has rarely been included in the reports from clinics now specializing in transgender research. Transvestism is closely related to fetishism (qv); in fact, one name recently suggested for the deviation is intermittent cross-gender dress fetishism.
He is happiest when he is “just naturally taken for a woman.” Some feel equally contented when no one at all sees them (eg, at night). Some wear cross-dress among good friends, men and women who tolerantly disregard their foible. Some like to visit relatives, stores, perhaps their dentist in cross-dress “as a lark,” giving a female name and being delighted at not being recognized immediately, or at the others’ astonishment. Some have been known to carry a picture of themselves in female garb and obtain a sense of pleasure from looking at it from time to time. Some find substitute and compromise outlets; they may wear female underwear or masculine underwear made of female-type fabric. Some say they are content because their work permits them to wear a smock or apron over their men’s trousers. A few work on the variety stage as female impersonators, although they share this metier with other types of transgender deviates. But at all times the compulsive transvestite remains a male, derives sexual gratification through use of his penis and wishes to remain a male.
Although in some cases transsexualism is indistinguishable from transvestism, there are some basic general differences in typical cases. The transsexual man, unlike the transvestite, obtains no erotic pleasure from wearing feminine clothing; he has always considered it his natural apparel, even though rarely permitted to wear it. When he cross-dresses it is not a masquerade or s disguise, but he perceives it as an expression of his true self (Walinder). In fact, in at least one transgender center the history of a single episode of cross-dressing in association with sexual arousal is sufficient to exclude the diagnosis of transsexualism (Baker). Unlike the transvestite he obtains no sexual pleasure though the use of his penis. His libido, as a rule, is not very pronounced, but in him masturbation fantasies and in wet dreams, if these patients’ usually unreliable reports are to be believed, he sees himself as a female.
From: Clinical sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions by John F. Oliven, 1974
It seems clear from the context, “transgender” is used as a catch-all term which includes various types of cross-dressers, transgender research, transgender clinics and transgender centers which refer to transsexual clinics/centers.